The Story of the Isle of Man
The Neolithic period brought the knowledge of farming, better stone tools, and pottery making. Also during this period the megalithic monuments began to appear around the island. They were used as communal tombs. The Bronze age brought smaller burial grounds to replace the communal tombs of the megalithic builders. With the Iron Age came the Celts who inhabited the island and brought their cultural influence. There is archaeological evidence of hill forts that appear on hills, summits and smaller forts along the coastal cliffs. There is evidence of framed round houses of the Celts.
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This was the first Celtic language on the island. Interestingly, the Romans never conquered the island, so there is no Roman influence here as there are with other Celtic nations. The secular history of the Isle of Man during this Celtic period remains a mystery and it is speculated that the island may have become a haven for the Druids and other refugees from Anglesey in Britain after the Sacking of Mona in 60 AD.
Edwin of Northumbria in did conquer the Isle of Man and Anglesey, but this did not last long.
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During this century came the cultural influence from Ireland and the migration brought a process of Gaelecization as evidenced by the Ogham stone inscriptions found on the island. This evidence is proof of Primitive Irish influence on the island. It is generally believed by scholars that the Irish invasions or migrations formed the basis for the modern Manx language.
It is believed the first dialects the islanders spoke were identical to the Gaelic of Ireland. Also, around this time, St. Maughold Maccui in Manx , an Irish missionary converted the island to Christianity and gives his name to a parish on the island. And, a number of Columban monks followers of St. Columba resided on the Isle of Man until about the end of the 6th century, so the island was converted to Christianity early on. After the brief conquests of the Northumbrians and the migration of the Irish to the island, came the period of Scandinavian rule and dominance on the island.
Olaf , Godred's son, exercised considerable power, and according to the Chronicle, maintained such close alliance with the kings of Ireland and Scotland that no one ventured to disturb the Isles during his time — In , his son, Godred reigned — , who for a short period ruled over Dublin also, lost the smaller islands off the coast of Argyll as a result of a quarrel with Somerled the ruler of Argyll. An independent sovereignty thus appeared between [ clarification needed ] the two divisions of his kingdom.
In the s the Catholic Church sent a small mission to establish the first bishopric on the Isle of Man, and appointed Wimund as the first bishop.
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He soon afterwards embarked with a band of followers on a career of murder and looting throughout Scotland and the surrounding islands. During the whole of the Scandinavian period, the Isles remained nominally under the suzerainty of the Kings of Norway , but the Norwegians only occasionally asserted it with any vigour. The first such king to assert control over the region was likely Magnus Barelegs , at the turn of the 12th century.
It was not until Hakon Hakonarson's expedition that another king returned to the Isles. From the middle of the 12th century until the suzerainty had remained of a very shadowy character; Norway had become a prey to civil dissensions. But after that date it became a reality, and Norway consequently came into collision with the growing power of the kingdom of Scotland. Early in the 13th century, when Ragnald reigned — paid homage to King John of England reigned — , we hear for the first time of English intervention in the affairs of Mann.
But a period of Scots domination would precede the establishment of full English control. Finally, in , Alexander III of Scotland sent envoys to Norway to negotiate for the cession of the isles, but their efforts led to no result. He therefore initiated a war, which ended in the indecisive Battle of Largs against the Norwegian fleet in However, the Norwegian king Haakon Haakonsson died the following winter, and this allowed King Alexander to bring the war to a successful conclusion.
Magnus Olafsson, King of Mann and the Isles reigned — , who had campaigned on the Norwegian side, had to surrender all the islands over which he had ruled, except Mann, for which he did homage. Two years later Magnus died and in King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands, including Mann, to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth in consideration of the sum of 4, marks known as merks in Scotland and an annuity of marks. But Scotland's rule over Mann did not become firmly established till , when the Manx suffered defeat in the decisive Battle of Ronaldsway , near Castletown.
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Then, in , the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour. King David II of Scotland , Robert Bruce's last male heir, had been captured in the Battle of Neville's cross and ransomed; however, when Scotland was unable to raise one of the ransom installments, David made a secret agreement with King Edward III of England to cancel it, in return for transferring the Scottish kingdom to an English prince.
Following the secret agreement, there followed a confused period when Mann sometimes suffered English rule and sometimes Scottish. In the island was "ravaged" by Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale on his way home from the destruction of the town of Carlingford. The island then came into the de facto possession of Henry, who granted it to Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland ; but following the latter's later attainder, Henry IV, in , made a lifetime grant of it, with the patronage of the bishopric, to Sir John Stanley.
In this grant was extended — on a feudatory basis under the English Crown — to Sir John's heirs and assigns, the feudal fee being the service of rendering homage and two falcons to all future Kings of England on their coronations.
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With the accession of the Stanleys to the throne there begins a more settled epoch in Manx history. Though the island's new rulers rarely visited its shores, they placed it under governors, who, in the main, seem to have treated it with the justice of the time. Of the thirteen members of the family who ruled in Mann, the second Sir John Stanley — , James, the 7th Earl — , and the 10th Earl of the same name — had the most important influence on it.
The Story of the Isle of Man by Arthur William Moore
They first curbed the power of the spiritual barons [ clarification needed ] , introduced trial by jury, which superseded trial by battle , and ordered the laws to be written. The second, known as the Great Stanley, and his wife, Charlotte de la Tremoille or Tremouille , are probably the most striking figures in Manx history.
In Charles I ordered James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby to go to Mann, where the people, no doubt influenced by events in England, threatened to revolt. Stanley's arrival, with English soldiers, soon put a stop to anything of this kind. He conciliated the people by his affability, brought in Englishmen to teach various handicrafts and tried to help the farmers by improving the breed of Manx horses, and, at the same time, he restricted the exactions of the Church. But the Manx also lost much of their liberty under his rule: they were heavily taxed; troops were quartered upon them; and they also had the more lasting grievance of being compelled to accept leases for three lifetimes instead of holding their land by the straw tenure, which they considered to be equivalent to a customary inheritance.
Six months after the death of Charles I on 30 January , Stanley received a summons from General Ireton to surrender the island, but he declined to do so. Charles was decisively defeated at the Battle of Worcester and Stanley was captured, imprisoned in Chester Castle and then tried by court-martial and executed at Bolton.
Soon after Stanley's death, the Manx Militia, under the command of William Christian known by his Manx name of Illiam Dhone , rose against the Countess and captured all the insular forts except Rushen and Peel. They were then joined by a Parliamentary force under Colonel Duckenfield , to whom the Countess surrendered after a brief resistance.
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Oliver Cromwell had appointed Thomas Fairfax "Lord of Mann and the Isles" in September , so that Mann continued under a monarchical government and remained in the same relation to England as before. The restoration of Stanley government in therefore caused as little friction and alteration as its temporary cessation had. He was found guilty and executed. Of the other persons implicated in the rebellion only three were excepted from the general amnesty.
But by Order in Council , Charles II pardoned them, and the judges responsible for the sentence on Christian were punished. Charles Stanley's next act was to dispute the permanency of the tenants' holdings, which they had not at first regarded as being affected by the acceptance of leases, a proceeding which led to an almost open rebellion against his authority and to the neglect of agriculture, in lieu of which the people devoted themselves to the fisheries and to contraband trade.
Charles Stanley, who died in , was succeeded first by his son William Richard George Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby until his death in Jun 20, PM. Thank heavens the Isle of Man TT didn't claim any more lives last week. There is a history of death connected to that race. See post 35 above. Jul 16, PM. Everything you need to know about the Isle of Man from ancient times until the present. In recent years, it has also become recognized as an international financial centre for banking and commerce. What is not so well understood is the island's status as a self-governing dependency of the British Crown and its long quest for national self-determination.
Now in paperback, "The Isle of Man: Portrait of a Nation", John Grimson tells the story of the island's evolution; beginning with its geological birth pangs in the Cambrian Period some million years ago, right up to the political, social and commercial developments of the modern era. In Part Two of the book, the author takes us on a tour of the island's superb coastal and upland landscapes, and around its historic towns, villages and parishes.
With the aid of some illustrations, the book tells of the Isle of Man and its people and of how they came to be what they are today. Aug 07, PM. The Isle of Man has an amazing history which is covered in this book. Takes into account developments in thinking on both sides of the Irish Sea. Attempts to place the archaeology in the context of much new thinking by medieval historians. Takes into account recent developments in palaeo-environmental studies in the Irish Sea area. Contains a good deal of new and previously unpublished material.
This is the first book to provide an overview of the archaeological evidence from the Isle of Man between the foundation of the Kingdom of the Isles in the 11th century and the Dissolution of the monasteries in the 16th.